Sports Science

Advancing Player Welfare

We interpret Player Welfare as additionally applying tried and tested algorithms and analytics from Sports Science to data captured during the course of coordinating team activities and communications, presented in a clear, visual graphic. Key published papers for measures implemented in SURPASSPORT are listed below.

Workload Score

Known formally as "Acute : Chronic Workload Ratio" (A:CWR), this measure is used by elite teams to measure the consistency of activity. It is calculated from Arbitrary Units ("AU"s) of workload and compares such values for the current period when compared to the average over the preceding number of periods.

  • Gabbett, T., 2016. The training—injury prevention paradox: should athletes be training smarter and harder?. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 50(5), pp.273-280. https://bjsm.bmj.com/content/50/5/273
  • Hulin, B., Gabbett, T., Lawson, D., Caputi, P. and Sampson, J., 2015. The acute: chronic workload ratio predicts injury: high chronic workload may decrease injury risk in elite rugby league players. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 50(4), pp.231-236. http://bjsm.bmj.com/content/early/2015/10/28/bjsports-2015-094817.short
  • Murray, N., Gabbett, T., Townshend, A. and Blanch, P., 2016. Calculating acute: chronic workload ratios using exponentially weighted moving averages provides a more sensitive indicator of injury likelihood than rolling averages. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 51(9), pp.749-754. http://bjsm.bmj.com/content/51/9/749
  • Piggott, B., Newton, M. J., & McGuigan, M. R., 2009. The relationship between training load and incidence of injury and illness over a pre-season at an Australian football league club. Journal of Australian Strength and Conditioning, 17(3), pp. 4-17. http://researchonline.nd.edu.au/health_article/61/
  • Hunter, J., 1986. The exponentially weighted moving average. J Quality Technol, 18(203), p.10. http://orbak.home.uludag.edu.tr/L11-OnEWMA.pdf

SURPASSPORT uses a measure of Activity Duration by Intensity, averaged over 7 days and compared to an Exponentially Weighted Moving Average over the preceding 30 days.

Read how Workload is used in SURPASSPORT.

Maturation & Growth Timing

Known formally as the age of "Peak Height Velocity" (aPHV), this is the age of the individual when their body is growing the fastest, often referred to as their growth spurt during teenage years. It is calculated based on skeletal measurements including standing height; torso height and body weight.

  • National Coaching and Training Centre, University of Limerick, 2003. Building Pathways in Irish Sport
  • Mirwald RL, Baxter-Jones ADG, Bailey DA, Beunen GP 2002. An assessment of maturity from anthropometric measurements. Medicine and Science Sports Exercise, pp. 689–694. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11932580
  • GAA Learning. Award 1 Youth Coach Manual. pp.7. https://learning.gaa.ie/sites/default/files/Coach/Files/A1_Youth%20Manual_28%20pages%20LR.pdf
  • Sławomir M. Kozieł1 and Robert M. Malina, 2018. Modified Maturity Offset Prediction Equations: Validation in Independent Longitudinal Samples of Boys and Girls. Sports Med., 48(1), pp. 221–236. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5752743/
  • van der Sluis A, Elferink-Gemser MT, Coelho-e-Silva MJ, Nijboer JA, Brink MS, Visscher C, 2014. Sport Injuries Aligned to P Height Velocity in Talented Pubertal Soccer Players. Int J Sports Med, 35, pp 351–355. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/256490670
  • van der Sluis A, Elferink-Gemser MT, Brink MS, Visscher C, 2015. Importance of peak height velocity timing in terms of injuries in talented soccer players. Int J Sports Med 36(4):327­32. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25607518
  • Lloyd RS, Oliver JL, 2012. The Youth Physical Development Model: A New Approach to Long-Term Athletic Development. Strength & Conditioning Journal, 34-3, pp61-72
  • Balyi I, Way R, Higgs C, 2013. Long-Term Athlete Development. Human Kinetics https://uk.humankinetics.com/products/Long-Term-Athlete-Development
  • Coaching Association of Canada. Long-term Athlete Development Information for Parents. http://sportforlife.ca/portfolio-view/ltad-information-parents/

SURPASSPORT also records arm span and knee height in preparation of additional confirmation of the age of peak height velocity.

Read how Maturation is used in SURPASSPORT.