Sports Science

Sports science continues to publish a wealth of insight, evidence and knowledge. This has a relevance, not only for elite athletes, but equally in informing coaching for players of all standards and abilities.

A selection of key reference papers are listed below.

Literature references

  • Gabbett, T., 2016. The training—injury prevention paradox: should athletes be training smarter and harder?British Journal of Sports Medicine, 50(5), pp.273-280.
  • Hulin, B., Gabbett, T., Lawson, D., Caputi, P. and Sampson, J., 2015. The acute: chronic workload ratio predicts injury: high chronic workload may decrease injury risk in elite rugby league playersBritish Journal of Sports Medicine, 50(4), pp.231-236.
  • Murray, N., Gabbett, T., Townshend, A. and Blanch, P., 2016. Calculating acute: chronic workload ratios using exponentially weighted moving averages provides a more sensitive indicator of injury likelihood than rolling averagesBritish Journal of Sports Medicine, 51(9), pp.749-754.
  • Piggott, B., Newton, M. J., & McGuigan, M. R., 2009. The relationship between training load and incidence of injury and illness over a pre-season at an Australian football league clubJournal of Australian Strength and Conditioning, 17(3), pp. 4-17.
  • Hunter, J., 1986. The exponentially weighted moving average. J Quality Technol, 18(203), p.10.

SURPASSPORT uses a measure of Activity Duration by Intensity, averaged over 7 days and compared to an Exponentially Weighted Moving Average over the preceding 30 days.

Read how Workload is used in SURPASSPORT.

Acute : Chronic Workload Ratio (A:CWR)

A:CWR is a measure of consistency of activity, comparing the current week with the average over the preceding month.
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Literature references

  • National Coaching and Training Centre, University of Limerick, 2003. Building Pathways in Irish Sport
  • Mirwald RL, Baxter-Jones ADG, Bailey DA, Beunen GP 2002. An assessment of maturity from anthropometric measurementsMedicine and Science Sports Exercise, pp. 689–694.
  • GAA Learning. Award 1 Youth Coach Manual. pp.7.
  • Sławomir M. Kozieł1 and Robert M. Malina, 2018. Modified Maturity Offset Prediction Equations: Validation in Independent Longitudinal Samples of Boys and GirlsSports Med., 48(1), pp. 221–236.
  • van der Sluis A, Elferink-Gemser MT, Coelho-e-Silva MJ, Nijboer JA, Brink MS, Visscher C, 2014. Sport Injuries Aligned to P Height Velocity in Talented Pubertal Soccer PlayersInt J Sports Med, 35, pp 351–355.
  • van der Sluis A, Elferink-Gemser MT, Brink MS, Visscher C, 2015. Importance of peak height velocity timing in terms of injuries in talented soccer playersInt J Sports Med 36(4):327­32.
  • Lloyd RS, Oliver JL, 2012. The Youth Physical Development Model: A New Approach to Long-Term Athletic DevelopmentStrength & Conditioning Journal, 34-3, pp61-72
  • Balyi I, Way R, Higgs C, 2013. Long-Term Athlete DevelopmentHuman Kinetics
  • Coaching Association of Canada. Long-term Athlete Development Information for Parents.

SURPASSPORT additionally records arm span and knee height in preparation of additional confirmation of the age of peak height velocity.

Maturation & Peak Height Velocity (PHV)

The age PHV is used to indicate biological maturity, in turn used to identify windows of accelerated adaptation and age appropriate coaching.
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Literature references

  • Testoni S, Mansfield L, Dolan P 2018. Defining and measuring subjective well-being for sport policyInternational Journal of Sport Policy and Politics, pp. 815-827.

Subjective Wellbeing

Assessment of the individual's well-being in a sporting context can provide additional insight into a team or individual's readiness for competition and flag risks of burnout.
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Literature references

  • Ramsbottom R, Brewer J, Williams C. A progressive shuttle run test to estimate maximal oxygen uptakeBritish Journal of Sports Medicine 1988;22. pp 141-144.
  • Bangsbo, J, Iaia F., Krustrup P. The Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test: A Useful Tool for Evaluation of Physical Performance in Intermittent SportsSports Medicine. 2008;38. pp 37-51.


Bleep and Yo-yo tests are a staple for assessing fitness.
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